We remember Wounded Knee 1973 ‘WK 73’


An elder writes in remembrance of one of the participants of that 71-day period

Dwain Camp

Ponca Nation

Feb. 27th is the date in 1973 that the late Carter Camp of the Ponca Nation led the first contingent of AIM warriors into the small town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

Thus beginning the 71-day occupation

Wounded Knee was the site in 1890 of a massacre killing nearly 300 Native women and children by the United States military forces.

Not a battle as it has often been called but a well documented mass murder of unarmed civilians. This atrocity receives scarcely a footnote, if that, in our children's history books. It deserves much more.

Wounded Knee was the historically appropriate site, in 1973, of an occupation by Native warriors that also deserves not to be forgotten. February 27th of this year marks the 47th year since the American Indian Movement made their stand for 71 days at this small village. I was there.

As a Native man born during the depths of the Great Depression in an Indian Health Service hospital, I was raised on a federal reservation and educated at a Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding school.

To add another dimension, immediately after leaving boarding school, I traveled, worked, married and had children while living in the world of the dominant society, thus having one foot in our ancient culture and one foot firmly planted in the new millennium.

Through living my dual cultures I had a bird’s eye view of a deeply ingrained racial inequity.

Then, in 1973 I joined the new warrior society of Native people, the freedom fighters of the American Indian Movement at the occupation of Wounded Knee or 'WK73.”

This life-changing experience began my 45-year journey down the Red Road of education and the struggles of Indigenous activism. I stood with my brothers and sisters at WK73. I fought from the bunkers beside my own brothers, Craig and Carter Camp.

I came to understand that the United States was built on land stolen by force and by broken treaty. I learned that the European philosophical rationalism of "Doctrine of Discovery” and "Manifest Destiny" simply means, "might makes right."

I also learned that our Native nations, oppressed for 300 years, ravaged by new diseases to near or complete extinction, survived, as Native nations within the United States.

This progression from the subjugation of a disenfranchised people to today’s Native nations has been one of the most exciting and important chapters in recent history. Indigenous people, against all odds, with diligence, intelligence, strength and courage, salvaged the remnants of a sovereignty denied for centuries and thus embarked upon the miraculous renaissance of a historically resilient people.

The Native people of our generation, coming of age in a country with rampant racism, when a president was assassinated and other great leaders murdered, were swept up in turbulence that did not include easily won social change.

It's been said that the occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973 was possibly the longest civil disorder with armed conflict in U.S. history since the Civil War. Certainly it brought national attention to the oppression of Indian people and it brought new energy and leadership into the Native sovereignty movement.

Dwain camp in Wounded Knee 1973
Dwain CampDwain Camp, Ponca Nation, at Wounded Knee in 1973. (Photo: courtesy Dwain Camp)

The result has been broad changes in federal Indian policy. The enactment of the Indian Self-Determination Act, the Indian Child Welfare Act, the Indian Freedom of Religion Act, the Indian Higher Education Act and later the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, became catalysts of change unimaginable before the unprecedented siege. Legions of nameless, Native heroes and heroines died or went to prison during those formative years. Many more went on to work the rest of their days, with pride and dignity, for their reborn tribal nations, exercising newly-restored treaty rights including self-governance.

Importantly, we elders must pass on this knowledge gained and time is not on our side. Our Earth Mother is sick. All mankind is threatened. Modern technology plus man's avarice and greed have caused an impending apocalypse.

We, who have always been here, whose bones of untold generations of our ancestors enrich the soil, are the stewards, the caretakers of this land. Joining hands with all kindred spirits, Native and non-Native, we can give future generations a place in the sun. Our children must learn how imperative is this truth as we teach continuity of culture, tradition and our true history.

To help overcome five hundred years of generational trauma, historical trauma, we elders must impart these truths to our young ones. Giving them a positive ancestral foundation helps engender our children with a strong, positive self-image. A pride in themselves as Natives will help future generations be more capable of making good life decisions. Brother Carter Camp, a founder of Oklahoma AIM, said. "As time has passed and I see so many of our young people taking part in a traditional way of living and believing, I know our fight was worth it and those we lost died worthy deaths."

So we will continue to sing our ancient brave heart songs.

We will continue to give thanks to Wakonda.

We will heal with Mother Earth.

And our journey will continue. It always has. It always will.


Dwain Camp
Dwain Camp, Ponca Nation(Photo: Dwain Camp)

Dwain Camp is an elder and Ponca Nation

Comments (1)
No. 1-1
Alex Jacobs
Alex Jacobs

I was there with Akwesasne Notes and after we returned home the newspaper circulation jumped from something over 10,000 to 100,000. People wanted to know what was going on Indian Country and from the voices of Native Peoples. NOTES published a book, "Voices From Wounded Knee", that has been reprinted many times in different sizes and formats, but it is remembered as that large rectangular Red Book with all the photos and testimony and news clippings. Suzan Harjo was able to access the FBI & DOJ papers under FOIA, some 25 years later. She told me they revealed that law enforcement used the photos in the book to identify, track down participants and in some cases they were killed in the repression that followed, some 200 unaccounted for deaths. The book can often be found in library reference sections.