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Canada marked its first official National Day for Truth and Reconciliation on Thursday. In the U.S., many honored U.S. boarding school survivors with a day of remembrance, aligning with Canada’s orange shirt day.

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They died far from home, without their families, at a boarding school they were forced to attend.

Some died at school; others died after being farmed out to Pennsylvania or New Jersey families who put them to work.

Here is a list of more than 40 children and young adults who died on outings from the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, or who died while attending the Lincoln Institution in Philadelphia.

Their families have not been located. Their tribal affiliations are sometimes vague. Their names may have been changed... READ more. Louellyn White, special to Indian Country Today


At least 10 Indigenous children died on outings from the Carlisle Indian Industrial School and are buried in various locations in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. At least 32 Indigenous children from the Lincoln Institution are buried in two different cemeteries in Philadelphia.

Their names are listed here in hopes of connecting them to their living families and communities, not just on Remembrance Day on Sept. 30, 2021, but for days to come.

These children and likely many more lie in foreign lands, interred without regard for their families or traditional burial practices, because they were part of the U.S. Indian boarding school policy, which aimed to eradicate Indigenous identities.

Twenty-five Indigenous children who died while attending the Lincoln Institution and Educational Home were buried here in the Woodlands Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Associate Professor Louellyn White at Concordia University in Montreal, Canada, is trying to find the families. (Photo courtesy of Louellyn White)

Government-sanctioned institutions for Indigenous children in the U.S. included one of the first all-Indian, off-reservation schools, the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, which started in 1879. Dozens of institutions across the U.S. and Canada, including Lincoln, were modeled after the Carlisle school, whose founder’s mission to assimilate Indigenous peoples became infamously known for his saying, “Kill the Indian, save the man.” READ more.Louellyn White, special to Indian Country Today

Louellyn White’s grandfather came to her in a dream one night after she’d stayed up late transcribing documents from the notorious Carlisle Indian Industrial School.

She asked him what he would want people to know about the Carlisle experience.

“Tell them we didn’t have a choice,” he told her.

White, Akwesasne, an associate professor of First Peoples Studies at Concordia University in Montreal, Canada, has been conducting research and writing about the Carlisle boarding school for a number of years.

Her grandfather, Mitchell Arionhiawa:kon White, and several other relatives attended the school, which became the model for other boarding schools across the U.S. and Canada... READ more. — Mary Annette Pember, Indian Country Today

THE PAS, Manitoba — They call themselves the Young Wolf Pack, and they are out on the streets in what the Cree call Mino-Keeseegow, a beautiful day.

Working in the cool shade on a surprisingly hot day at the end of September, Sidney Head, Pimicikimik Cree Nation, and Destin Laronde, Metis Nation, are painting a mural on a wall designated as a public art space near the corner of Edward Street and Provincial Road 285.

The central image will be an orange shirt — a symbol acknowledged worldwide for the North American genocide of Indigenous people in Indian boarding schools in the United States and residential schools in Canada as a final solution to the so-called “Indian problem.”

Volunteers put up orange shirts before a press conference and prayer vigil at the former Muscowequan Indian Residential School, one of the last residential schools to close its doors in Canada in 1997 and the last fully intact residential school still standing in Saskatchewan at Muskowekwan First Nation, Saskatchewan, on Tuesday, June 1, 2021. The vigil was in response to the remains of 215 children recently found at the Kamloops Indian Residential School. (Kayle Neis/The Canadian Press via AP)

The mural will be painted and ready for memorials across the U.S. and Canada on Thursday, Sept. 30, for the newly designated Truth and Reconciliation Day in Canada and Remembrance Day in the U.S. to commemorate all the children who never came home... READ more. Miles Morrisseau, special to Indian Country Today

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ANCHORAGE, Alaska — A U.S. District Court judge has ruled against plans by the Native Village of Eklutna to build a tribal gaming hall about 20 miles north of downtown Anchorage.

The tribe had intended to offer pull-tabs, bingo and lotteries at the site, the Anchorage Daily News reported. The tribal government has said the gaming hall would support jobs, tourism and the economy.

The U.S. Department of Interior in 2018 concluded the tribe does not have jurisdiction over an eight-acre allotment where it has sought to build the gaming hall. Citizens of the tribe own the allotment, located near the Birchwood Airport in Chugiak.

The tribal government sued in 2019, challenging that decision.

Judge Dabney L. Friedrich with the District Court for the District of Columbia in a 24-page ruling determined the department properly came to a “rational” decision.

The decision favors the state of Alaska, which had intervened in the case in support of the Interior Department. The state has often opposed attempts by tribal governments to exercise jurisdiction, citing fears that such a situation could lead to a patchwork of conflicting laws. — The Associated Press

The U.S. Department of the Interior will begin tribal consultations as part of the next step of its boarding school initiative, which had been announced in June.

The Interior is asking tribes, Alaska Native corporations, Native Hawaiian organizations to provide feedback for potential future site work.

“Tribal consultations are at the core of this long and painful process to address the inter-generational trauma of Indian boarding schools and to shed light on the truth in a way that honors those we have lost and those that continue to suffer trauma,” Interior Secretary Deb Haaland said in a statement.


N. Bird Runningwater, former director of the Indigenous film program at the Sundance Institute, is heading to Amazon Studios.

Runningwater, Cheyenne and Mescalero Apache, signed a first-look deal with Amazon, according to

(Related: N. Bird Runningwater: ‘A fond farewell to Sundance’)

He began his tenure as programmer for Sundance’s Native program in 2001 where he focused on film labs, film festivals and increasing inclusion for Native artists.

“I’m excited to partner with Amazon Studios TV to produce Indigenous stories, building on my 20 years of bringing Indigenous voices to screens while at Sundance Institute,” Runningwater told Deadline.

(Related: Watch: Two decades of progress)

Meander through the entrance to the Powwow Grounds coffee shop and past the office of the Native American Community Development Institute to find the All My Relations Art Gallery.

It’s located on the “Ave” — Franklin Avenue — in the heart of Minneapolis’ urban Indigenous community.

Inside the gallery, Courtney Cochran moves easily among painted boards lined up along the walls, as blank boards sit atop of tables waiting to be finished. She’ll soon be joined by more than a half-dozen community members to finish out another piece of art.

The boards will eventually form a temporary art installation spelling out the letters, “Never Homeless Before 1492,” at the site of “The Wall of Forgotten Natives,” a former homeless encampment that drew national attention to Minneapolis and the nation’s housing problems in 2018… READ more. Dan Ninham, special to Indian Country Today

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